What is CBD?
CBD stands for cannabidiol, which is a compound found in cannabis plants. The cannabis plant contains hundreds of phytochemicals known as terpenoids. Phytochemicals are actually found in all plants, fruits and flowers and they provide much of their taste, smell, personality and active qualities.
Phytocannabinoids (cannabinoids found in plants) are a type of terpenoids, and there are more than 100 phytocannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The human body also naturally produces substances called endocannabinoids.
Research suggests that these endocannabinoids in the human body regulate various processes such as appetite, metabolism and energy; pain, mood and stress; and memory. The effect of each cannabinoid depends on the receptor they bind to; so targeting particular receptors can provide relief for specific issues and ailments.
3. Does CBD Oil contain THC?
Yes, but only very low levels which cannot cause a psychotic effect. Both marijuana and hemp are forms of cannabis. However, they are not the same thing. Think of cannabis as being the umbrella term for both marijuana and hemp. Unlike the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in marijuana, CBD does not cause any feeling of “high” because it only contains a very low level of THC.
The most abundant cannabinoid in the entire cannabis plant is THC, which along with various positive health effects, is the compound that provides the psychotropic effects – or the “high”.
The second most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis is cannabidiol, better known as CBD. Unlike THC, CBD does not contain any psychoactive properties, so will not provide a high. But it does provide many of the same and some additional, qualities of medical marijuana. While THC mainly binds to receptors in the brain, CBD prefers receptors located throughout the body.
Cannabinoids, including CBD, are naturally occurring. They are known for their potency in pain relief and anti-inflammatory properties, along with helping to regulate the endocannabinoid system, and the nervous system.
To summarise, hemp and marijuana are not the same but they are both part of the cannabis family. Hemp has lower THC levels (0.3%) whereas marijuana contains somewhere between 5-35%. Therefore, you cannot get a psychotic effect from hemp because of the minimal levels of THC and, as CBD oil is extracted from the hemp part of the plant, you cannot get high from the CBD oil.
4. Will CBD oil get me ‘high’?
5. How is CBD oil obtained?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the three chemicals that make up the trichomes of the cannabis plant. There a few different ways of extracting the CBD from the plant and we use a combination of CO2 extraction and alcohol extraction.
The first method of using alcohol, known as the liquid solvents method, is a simple extraction process which doesn’t require much equipment. Parts of the plant such as the flowers and the trim are placed into a container and then the liquid is run through them. This trims the parts of the plant in the container and strips them of their cannabinoids and flavours.
The cannabinoids are transferred into the liquid and then evaporated away from the mixture, creating an oil substance. This end result is the CBD oil.
The other method we use is carbon dioxide extraction. For this type of extraction, we also use a piece of equipment called a closed loop extractor. This gadget has three chambers where the process of extracting the CBD from the plant takes place.
The first chamber contains pressurised C02, otherwise known as dry ice. The second chamber consists of dry plant material. Finally, the third chamber is where the finished product will be created.
The process starts when the solid C02 in the first chamber is pumped into the second chamber to join the plant material (flowers & trim). The second chamber is kept at a specific temperature and pressure. These specific conditions cause the C02 to behave more like a liquid.
This liquid runs through the flowers and stems and collects the chemicals and flavours, much like the liquid solvent process of extraction. Finally, the C02 – cannabinoid mixture is then pumped into the 3rd chamber, which is kept at a lower temperature. This shift in temperature causes the C02 to rise to the top and the oil containing the chemicals and flavours to drop to the bottom. The oil at the bottom is then collected for use.
6. Is CBD oil completely natural?
7. What does CBD do?
Cannabinoids were patented by the United States Department of Health and Human Services as neuroprotectants and antioxidants and for treating a wide number of diseases.
Patent No. 6630507 from 2003 specifically names CBD, stating “Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses.” Patent No. 6630507
Project CBD, a California based non-profit organization, sites CBD in the treatment of a great variety of conditions including:
- rheumatoid arthritis
- sleep disorders
“Extensive preclinical research—much of it sponsored by the U.S. government—indicates that CBD has potent anti-tumoral, antioxidant, anti-spasmodic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsive, and neuroprotective properties. CBD directly activates serotonin receptors, causing an anti-anxiety effect.” – This information was taken from the CBD Project.
8. How does CBD oil work?
The human body has something called an endocannabinoid system, which basically means a group of millions of cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are found in almost every organ of your body, primarily in the brain and central nervous systems. The endocannabinoid system has four main uses:
- Stress relief
- Immune response
CBD oil stops enzymes from naturally breaking down endocannabinoids, causing your body’s naturally-produced cannabinoids to increase. Increasing the cannabinoids in the body helps to improve balance, deal with stress relief and help with various ailments.
9. What are the main benefits of CBD oil?
CBD oil is a natural remedy which is extremely versatile. The endocannabinoid system regulates the body’s internal balance, therefore CBD oil is an excellent remedy for a variety of different ailments. Some examples of health issues which can be treated with CBD oil include:
- Chronic Pain such as Arthritis
- Anxiety & depression
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Improving heart health
- Skin conditions
- Sleep disorders
10. Is full spectrum oil more effective than CBD isolate? The Entourage Effect: Full spectrum oil vs isolate
Some cannabinoids have proven so powerful they have been synthesized for legal prescription use. However, full spectrum CBD hemp oil contains a far wider collection of compounds, which increases the therapeutic potential.
When looking for the right CBD product it may be tempting to think that if CBD is good, just CBD must be even better. However, there are strong arguments and generally scientific consensus recommending better results with the use of full spectrum oils over that of isolates and synthetic CBDs.
“Products infused with a crystalline CBD isolate, derived and extensively refined from industrial hemp, are already being marketed by unregulated internet storefronts. But single-molecule CBD is less effective therapeutically than whole plant CBD-rich oil extract.
Scientific studies have established that synthetic, single-molecule CBD has a very narrow therapeutic window and requires precise, high doses for efficacy, whereas lower dose, whole-plant, CBD-rich treatment regimens are already showing efficacy for many conditions among patients in medical marijuana states.” – CBD Project.
11. What is the entourage effect?
The following content was taken from the CBD Project:
The synergistic relationship between many cannabinoids means that taking them collectively, as with a full spectrum oil, actually magnifies the therapeutic benefits. The Entourage Effect, as it is known, suggests that the benefits of the wide array of cannabinoids available in a full plant extract is greater than the sum of its parts.
“It is important to consider the entourage effect (or lack thereof) when extrapolating data based on animal studies: 100 milligrams of synthetic single-molecule CBD is not equivalent to 100 milligrams of a CBD-rich whole plant cannabis extract.”
12. How much CBD oil should I take?
This very much depends on how your body reacts to it and also what type of product you are using. However, we would recommend starting with just one drop, once or twice a day and seeing how you get on.
13. Does CBD oil cause any side effects?
Hemp is considered to be very safe so there shouldn’t be any harmful side effects. However, we would recommend consulting your doctor before taking CBD oil, and the same goes for starting any new dietary supplement.
The World Health Organization says:
“At its November 2017 meeting, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) concluded that, in its pure state, cannabidiol does not appear to have abuse potential or cause harm.”
14. Is CBD oil safe to take with other medications?
15. What are terpenes?
Terpenes are organic compounds found in various plants and insects. The cannabis plant has naturally high levels of terpenes which have medicinal benefits and also provide the flavour and scent of the oi. The terpenes provide distinctive flavors such as citrus, berry, mint, and pine.
The essential oils revolution has brought more awareness of the medical benefits of terpenes and aromatherapy. Nearly all of the major terpenes in cannabis are either analgesic (anti-pain) or anti-inflammatory.
16. Why are terpenes important?
17. Which terpenes are used in Hawaiian Choice CBD products?
We use a variety of different terpenes in our CBD oils:
Gamma-Terpinene – This one has a scent of citrus and oregano and helps with pain and inflammation, as well as being anti-fungal.
Eucalyptol – This oil has a minty scent, with hints of spice and honey. This oil is used for aching joints and muscles and has a cooling effect. It’s calming, helps to ease pain and improves energy and focus.
Humulene – The main constituent of hops is a strong anti-inflammatory agent and a hunger-suppressant. It has an earthy and woody aroma and is also found in hops, coriander, cloves and basil. It’s uplifting and calming and eases pain and inflammation.
Terpinolene – A smokey or woody aroma that is very relaxing and slightly sedative, used as an antioxidant and is antibacterial. This one is used to calm the mind and promote sleep.
Myrcene – The most common terpene in cannabis which has highly-sedative effects, and is used as an antioxidant; for treatment of insomnia, pain, and inflammation. It has an earthy scent with hints of cardamom and cloves and is calming and uplifting.
Linalool – This one has a floral scent and its effects include mood enhancement and sedation. It is calming and uplifting and used for the treatment of anxiety and depression. It has a similar scent to lavender.
Delta 3 Carene – Delta 3 Carene possess a mildly sweet, pungent, citrus-like aroma. Delta 3 Carene removes excess fluids which helps to reduce inflammation throughout the body and promotes bone growth.
Limonene – Common in citrus, it is highly-energetic and a known anti-depressant. It can elevate your mood, provide stress relief, improve energy levels and focus and help with anxiety.
Alpha-Pinene – Energetic and therapeutic, promotes alertness, this terpene is common in pine needles. It has an uplifting and calming effect and can help with pain and inflammation,
18. Which countries does CBD come from?
Various countries in the world currently grow hemp which is used to make CBD oil. Hemp plants are currently grown on four continents of the world:
USA, Canada, Chile
Asia & Pacific:
Australia, China, India, Nepal, South Korea, Thailand
Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine
Hemp is currently more readily available in Asia and Europe than it is in the USA, although this is set to change. Many brands source their hemp oil from China or Eastern Europe.
After the Federal Farm Bill of 2014, USA state governments were allowed to start piloting hemp farming in their individual states. Hemp farming has increased substantially in some states including Colorado and Kentucky. These states have set up a legitimate license and certification process for the farmers to go through.
There are many factors which have an impact on the quality of the hemp grown including soil fertility, crop rotation, and how pests, weeds and disease are managed. The easiest way to find out where your CBD oil came from is to ask the brand for the source of their hemp. It is crucial that CBD is sourced from a high quality, regulated source.